Since 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has been promoting 78 “innovative cities” with investments in science, technology, human resources and culture. Examples include Nanjing, Xi’an, Chengdu and Wuhan, where many new science parks have been established. MOST has now expanded the number of these cities to 103. A report by Elsevier concludes that Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen are among the world’s most active major cities according to the criteria of innovative enterprises, patent activities and collaboration between science and business.