Month: September 2021

25-9 China issues long-term guideline on IP

China’s State Council and the CPC recently issued a guideline on building up its intellectual property (IP) strength between 2021 and 2035. By 2035, China’s overall IP competitiveness will be at the forefront of the world as a world-class IP powerhouse with Chinese characteristics on six aspects: China will build a comprehensive, well-structured, IP legal system and accelerate IP legislation in new fields and business forms such as big data, AI and genetic technology, 2. China will build an IP protection system that is strict, fair, open and transparent and that can sustain a world-class business environment, 3. China will establish an IP market operation mechanism that encourages innovation by cultivating patent-intensive industries and promoting the construction of trademarks and brands, 4. the country will build an IPR public service system that is convenient and beneficial to the public, 5. China will foster a cultural and social environment that helps promote high-quality IP development. It will strive to create a cultural atmosphere of respecting knowledge, valuing innovation, upholding integrity and observance of the law, and encouraging fair competition, while training of IP talents with a global vision, 6. China will deepen its participation in global IP governance, actively participate in its reform and construction, deepen pragmatic cooperation with countries and regions participating in the Belt and Road Initiative on IPR, and create high-level cooperation platforms.  People’s Daily, September 25, 2021

28-9 China’s R&D spending and patenting on new heights

According to a White Paper released by the State Council, China’s R&D spending was about 370.97 billion U.S. dollars, ranking the world’s second, and the ratio of R&D to GDP reached 2.4 percent. Nearly 1.35 million utility patent applications were filed and 441,000 were granted, and 69,000 international PCT patent applications were submitted. By the end of 2020, China had established 533 key national labs, 350 national engineering research centers, 1,636 national enterprise technology centers, 1,287 national technology enterprise incubators, and many more initiatives to promote S&T. Xinhua news release, September 28, 2021

27-9 CAS Shanghai converts syngas aerosols to medium- and long-chain chemicals using Clostridium ljungdahlii

A group around Weihong JIANG at CAS Institute of Plant Sciences in Shanghai metabolically engineered autotrophic Clostridium ljungdahlii to efficiently co-produce three important bulk chemicals, isopropanol, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), and ethanol (together, IHE), using syngas (CO2/CO). The engineered strain was further optimized to reassimilate acetic acid and synthesize 3-HB by introducing heterologous functional genes. Finally, the best-performing strain was able to produce 13.4, 3.0, and 28.4 g/L of isopropanol, 3-HB, and ethanol, respectively, in continuous gas fermentation. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.1c00235

24-9 Team at CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology synthesises starch from CO2 in a cell-free system

The group used computational design to draft an artificial anabolic pathway from CO2 to starch.  First, CO2 is reduced to methanol by an inorganic catalyst. Next, in a cell free system with spatial and temporal segregation, methanol is covered to starch through 11 core reactions driven by hydrogen and including engineered enzymes. Reaction rates in the cell-free system were calculated to be about 8.5 times higher than stach synthesis in maize. A 1000 L bioreactor using this system could theoretically produce as  much starch as about 0.3 ha of a cornfield (energy input not considered). Corresponding author of the study published in Science Magazine is Yanhe Ma, Director General of CAS-TIB. DOI: 10.1126/science.abh4049

24-9 China accounts for 40% of the world’s 6G patent applications

Within 2 years, China has built the world’s largest 5G network. As of August 2021, there were 1.037 million 5G base stations, more than 70% of the world’s total; the number of 5G terminal users has surpassed 400 million, the largest user base in the world; more than 10,000 5G application innovations have been built in the media, medical, transportation, education and other industries. Based on these accomplishments, China has already strengthened research on 6G basic and interdisciplinary technologies such as the use of low, medium and high frequencies, integration with non-terrestrial mobile communication networks such as satellites and high-altitude platforms, and started initiatives to make 6G a worldwide international standard. In terms of patent applications on 6G, China is presently on top of the USA. In the future, 6G communication networks will effectively contribute to smart production and living, and ‘digital twins’ will connect humans, computers and smart robots to a giant distributed neural network, deeply integrating the physical, biological, and digital worlds. The 6G era will integrate six major AI resources: network, terminal, business, computing power, storage, and data, and provide AI platforms for various industries. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Telecommunication/China-accounts-for-40-of-6G-patent-applications-survey

20-9 Chinese university establishes IT-controlled „future orchard“ in Beijing

The „Future Orchard” was founded on 4 ha land by China Agricultural University and other enterprises in Pinggu, a 400,000 people township of Beijing with a population density of 438 inhabitants per km square. The peach and kiwi tree orchard has a lab for intelligent monitoring and visual diagnosis on the the fruit trees and their environment for improvement of planting efficiency, fruit yield and quality. Xinhua news release, September 20, 2021

13-9 China launches Gaofen 5-02 satellite for hyper spectral observation of air pollution

The satellite developed by the CAS Hefei Institute of Material Science is equipped with a total of 7 remote sensing instruments, including a main greenhouse gas monitor (GMI), an atmospheric trace gas differential absorption spectrometer (EMI), a multi-angle polarization detector (DPC) and a high-precision polarization scanner (POSP). The four payloads operate synchronously for a dynamic monitoring of China’s air pollution status and the development of air pollution prevention and control measures. China S&T news, September 13, 2021

13-9 Hydrogen from decoupled water electrolysis may regulate electricity peak loads

DENG Denghui’s group at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences wants to use hydrogen as a green energy carrier to balance peaks and troughs in power consumption. To this end, they use polysulfides as a mediator in a galvanostat, lowering the reduction potential for the formation of hydrogen to + 0.82 V at 100 mA/cm2, 60% below the value for the direct electrolysis of water. The mediator is then reduced again during nighttime operation at -1.81 V. The electrode is made of a CoNi nanoalloy encapsulated in N-doped graphene (CoNi@NGs), protecting it from sulfide corrosion. Using this “chainmail catalyst,” the researchers produced hydrogen in high space-time yields for 500 hours without poisoning the electrode. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100144

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