A research team led by Benny K.K. Chan of Academia Sinica has conducted microdissection, transcriptome, shotgun proteomics, and immunohistochemistry of larval cement glands to identify turtle barnacles that attach to sea turtles. We successfully identified 30 types of larval cement proteins and 27 types of adult cement proteins of Chelonibia testudinaria. The results showed that the majority of cement proteins were specific to growth stages and barnacles.
Based on the validation results, the research team concluded that the cement secretion systems of barnacle larvae and adults evolved separately, and that both depended on the co-option of existing genes and the de novo formation of lineage-specific cement protein genes. concluded that it arose through duplication and functional divergence